Apologies for the version issues. The main reason is that the cPanel system updates are not done in sync with the other software updates that come with the account. Our systems team plans the updates for the servers and then rolls them out after careful consideration. I have no details on your account, so it's difficult to tell if you're on a Business account, or VPS/Dedicated server account. We would need this information to give you specifics. However, I'll list the possible answers.
If you are on a Business level account, you will not be able to upgrade the version on the server. However, you will be able to install phpMyadmin separately. When it is installed in this manner, then you can run it without using the cPanel version. Check out our tutorial on the installation procedure. You can then use the version you've installed without requiring direct cPanel access.